What is Creatine?

One of the most popular and effective supplements is creatine monohydrate. It was first introduced back in 1993, with the first product coming from EAS. It’s called “Phosphagen,” after one of the body’s energy systems. This was a milestone product to be sure.

Let’s define exactly what creatine is. It’s a nitrogenous compound that occurs naturally in meats and fish. Additionally, it’s synthesized by the liver, pancreas and kidney. Furthermore, it’s produced from three amino acids: methionine, arginine and glycine.


It was discovered by the French scientist Chevreul in 1835. He named it after the Greek word for flesh “Kreas”. It was first linked to muscle tissue in 1847. In 1922, human studies dating back to 1910 were reviewed by a scientist named Hunter. (1) In these studies, subjects were loading with creatine up to 20 grams per day for 6 days. In 1926, Chanutin (2) detailed case studies where human subjects loaded 4 times a day for 10 days. In the 70’s, researchers thought insulin might be involved in the uptake of creatine. This was determined yet again in 1992 by Harris(3).

By the way, the 1992 Harris study was one of the pioneering steps to creatine hitting the marketplace. In 1993 it was actually introduced as a supplement, as mentioned above, by EAS. Ed Byrd, known as “Mr. Creatine”, was an EAS co-founder and the man that gave us NO2 in 2002. Mr. Byrd was largely responsible for it’s introduction. It caught on pretty quickly and caused most every supplement manufacturer to scramble for their own version. Many major manufacturers of the day turned down the chance to be the first to market it. Why? Simple. They didn’t understand it. This was the days of the mega calorie weight gainer. Calories were everything. Then, here comes along with a product that has no calories? No way that will ever fly! Well, as we now know, it has proven extremely successful, re-defining what a natural supplement can do!

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Benefits of Creatine:

  • Increases muscular endurance.
  • Increases muscle size and strength through cell expansion.
  • May be involved in protein synthesis.
  • Promotes Strength & Power

To better understand the benefits, we need to take a look at how creatine works.

Muscles store creatine as creatine phosphate, which functions as part of the Phosphagen system. Muscle cells contain 4 to 6 times as much creatine phosphate as ATP, the immediate energy source for muscle cells. This is true for both high and low intensity training. However, it can take less than a second to burn your bodies reserve of ATP. This is where creatine phosphate (also called phosphocreatine) comes in. Your body has a small reserve of creatine that your muscles can quickly convert to ATP. However, this will only power an all out effort for 3 to 15 seconds. As exercise intensity decreases and the duration increases, as in a marathon type race, your body turns to other systems of energy production. The Phosphagen system is used primarily for shorter duration exercise, as in bodybuilding training.

Why use creatine to enhance muscle cell energy production? That becomes obvious when you look at the re synthesis of creatine. There’s a regulating enzyme known as creatine kinase that breaks down creatine. This separates the phosphate molecule from the creatine molecule. Phosphate then binds with ADP, which lacks just one phosphate from becoming ATP. So basically your body can manufacture fresh ATP through this process. Overall, this can take up to 4-5 minutes.

So, the more creatine available, the more that can ultimately be used for energy. This allows you to train harder and longer which can lead to better results. This is true whether it’s improved performance or more muscle and strength.

Cell Volume, Or, Water-Based Pumps!

It also acts as a voluminizer or cell expansion product by pulling water into the muscle cell. This causes it to expand, resulting in a increase in muscle size and strength. This is known as water-based pumps. It is also referred to as sarcoplasmic hypertrophy and is one of the theories of muscle growth. As well, this is a very big product category right now. In fact, it covers pre workout drinks, intra workout drinks and numerous stand alone products. However, as noted creatine was really the first product to cause this effect. In fact, when it was first introduced you heard more about this benefit and not as much about the endurance aspects.

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Evidence Behind Creatine

There are numerous reports of quite a few tests being done on creatine. Here is an example of a recent one.

Dr Martin Engelhardt from the Orthopoadische Universitatsklinik in Frankfurt formulated a cycle ergometer experiment. This compared endurance/power endurance exercise in athletes without creatine supplementation against those with low-dose supplementation.

Twelve regional class triathletes aged between 22 and 27 were selected to take part in the test. Each athlete underwent a preliminary incremental cycle ergometer test to determine their 3 mmol.L-1 blood lactate intensity. Once established, this intensity was used as the aerobic exercise intensity for the experiment.

The testing began with each athlete performing their aerobic exercise on the cycle for 30 minutes. This was followed by two bouts of high-intensity interval training. Included was cycling hard for 15 secs and then 45 secs at their aerobic exercise intensity. Test subjects did this 10 times before two minutes rest and systematically repeating the interval session. After this, the subjects were ‘rewarded’ with another 30 minutes of cycling at their specific aerobic exercise intensity.

BTW, this is a total of one hour and 20 minutes cycling. The test results were then kept from the athletes. The following day they were administered 6 grams of creatine daily. This was to be taken in two 3g doses. It was to cover a period of five days before returning to repeat the test. You’ve probably noticed that the creatine loading dose only amounted to 30g over the five days. In many other creatine studies the normal dose is 100g (four doses of 5g daily for five days).

Test Results!

Blood samples were taken throughout the testing to monitor creatine, creatinine (the degradation product of creatine), glucose and lactate levels. Urine samples (for measurement of creatine and creatinine urine levels) heart rate and oxygen uptake were measured both before and after the aerobic exercises.

The Results

After creatine supplementation analysis of the blood and urine samples showed significant increases in the serum creatine concentration in the blood. As well, there was increased serum creatinine levels in the urine. Fifty percent of the athletes in the first test couldn’t complete the entire second 30 min bout of endurance exercise. After taking creatine each of the athletes who had struggled in the first test managed to increase their ride time by four minutes. However, after creatine supplementation, the researchers report that the total number of interval reps increased significantly. In fact, 75 percent of the athletes improved their performance.

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Creatine Safety

Amazingly there is still a lot of misconception about creatine. Some people, including members of Congress and some sport federations, think creatine is a steroid. In fact, many college level sport federations have banned creatine. Congress would like to see it banned from retail sale. The truth is, creatine is not a steroid. It will not kill you or ruin your kidneys. As should be the case anyway, you should be drinking a lot of water as part of your daily program. This helps flush out creatinine, the waste by-product of creatine. As well, and as is the case with any supplement, spend some time doing research. This will help you to make an informed choice and choose a quality brand.

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Creatine Supplements, Timing and Dosage

Creatine comes in tablets capsules, powder versions and chewables. There’s less popular versions available as liquid and even effervescent packets. There are numerous types that have hit the market since the early 90’s:


Again, this is the original. One of he best ways to use it is with a loading phase. This consists of 4-5 doses (typically 5 grams per dose timed to be on an empty stomach) per day for up to 5 days and once a day thereafter. Some side effects reported in some users are bloating, gas and diarrhea. For this reason, companies began to explore other versions. They wanted a version that not cause the side effects associated with monohydrate. They also used superior absorption as a reason to buy their version.

Ethyl Ester

This was one of the first products requiring a smaller dose, typically 2-3 grams per serving. Users do not need to load. This version, as is the case with most newer versions, eliminates the monohydrate effects. This is available as a pill or powder. You usually take one serving (usually 2-3 grams) twice a day separated by at least 6 hours.

Tri Creatine Malate

This is creatine monohydrate and malic acid. This is involved in the Krebs energy cycle as an intermediate substance, and helps to provide energy to the body. When malic acid and creatine monohydrate form Tri-creatine malate, it becomes more water-soluble than regular creatine monohydrate. This helps it deal with the side effect of gastric discomfort. In addition, it’s more efficient at impacting the ATP cycle. Tri-creatine malate is also believed to offer greater bio-availability over regular creatine monohydrate.

What is the Kreb’s energy cycle? It is defined as a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells. It’s the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids. It’s also how carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed. Also called citric acid cycle, or the tricarboxylic acid cycle. It’s important to note that there are actually several energy systems that the body uses.

Buffered Creatine

Also known as Kre-Alkalyn. This version actually has a patent on it, #6,399,631. The research on this ties into creatine’s conversion to creatinine, a waste byproduct of creatine usually produced at a reasonably constant rate. Additionally, it gets filtered through the kidneys and passes out in the urine. The advertising behind this product talks about creatine converting quickly to creatinine when mixed in liquid. In fact, many creatine products encourage drinking their powder within 10 minutes of mixing for this reason. The research behind this product indicates that as the ph of creatine rises, conversion to creatinine slows. At a ph of 12, it stops altogether. So, this version solves that problem, requires less total creatine per serving, removes any potential gastric discomfort. With this product, you use 1-2 grams in the morning and again before training.

Micronized Creatine

This is monohydrate with smaller particles. As much as 20 times smaller! The primary purpose is improved absorption. Also, it mixes easier and there’s no stomach bloat or upset. The serving size is 5 grams, you mix one heaping teaspoon into 8oz of juice or water and drink right away. For best results, you should drink 8 to 10 glasses (8 oz) of water a day.

There is a loading phase similar to the standard monohydrate version:

Loading Phase: Day 1 through 5- Take 1 heaping teaspoon 4 to 6 times daily.

Maintenance Phase: Day 6 through 21- Take 1 heaping teaspoon twice daily. Then go off for 3 days, and repeat the cycle.

Liquid Creatine

This is not as popular as it once was. The biggest complaint is the lack of stability which leads to poor results.


This is one of the hot versions on the market, the primary product being Con-Cret by Promera. This product is a concentrated creatine, requiring a micro-dose of one teaspoon. As with the other versions competing with monohydrate, you have superior absorption, Also, there’s no side effects, and you need less total creatine.

Creatine Anhydrous

This is creatine monohydrate without the water molecule. This provides about 6% more pure creatine per serving compared to creatine monohydrate.

Creatine Citrate

This first appeared on the market not long after monohydrate. This is creatine and citric acid. Remember that citric acid is important in providing aerobic energy in the muscles. This version will provide an athlete with more energy. At least that’s the belief.

Creatine Phosphate

This is another early form. This is creatine and phosphate. Actually, this is a process that naturally occurs within muscle cells. This version seems to be less effective then monohydrate and as such, is not that popular.

Magnesium Creatine

This is creatine and magnesium. Adding magnesium assists in the digestion of creatine, primarily helping it pass through the stomach. Also, magnesium turns creatine phosphate into ATP.

Creatine Glutamine Taurine

This version of creatine is bonded with glutamine and taurine. Both glutamine and taurine act to volumize cells. There’s a side benefit – taurine has been shown to improve strength.

Formula Products

Creatine is also found in numerous formula products, such as pre workout, intra workout and post workout supplements. It’s also in some protein and weight gain powders. You can even find it in some protein bars.


Timing, then, becomes a little cloudy but primarily, it’s best to use it before/during a workout. Depending on the product, use it at another time of the day, typically several hours before or after training. Are you using a pre or intra workout product? You may need to buy a separate, stand alone version to use on your off days and non training time frames.

Dosage, as we have seen, is product and version specific, so label reading is a must. Additionally, many people cycle it. The main reason for this is to simply give your body and wallet a break.

Users do not need to cycle it. Like most things, you adjust to it after a while and you notice results slow. Doing off for 6-8 weeks allows for fresh results when you go back on. Finally, as mentioned above, maintain a high water intake. This is important anyway. Why? Our bodies are water and protein. This means that many of the chemical processes happen in our bodies in the presence of water.


1.Hunter A. The physiology of creatine and creatinine. Physiological Reviews 2:580-626, 1922
2.Chanutin A. The fate of creatine when administered to man. Journal of Biological Chemistry 67:29-41, 1926
3.Harris RC, Soderland K & Hultman E. Elevation of creatine in resting and elevated muscle of normal subjects
by creatine supplementation. Clinical Science 83:367-374,1992
Also used was the college textbook Discovering Nutrition, by Paul Insel, R.Elaine Turner and Don Ross,
Published by the American Dietetic Association

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